Types of air cargo pdf

What does that mean exactly? That is 1 ton of revenue cargo getting carried for 1 mile. That is a lot of freight and parcel shipping happening across the country every day. We are going to explain what exactly air freight carriers are and how they differ from each other.

What can and cannot be shipped via air freight. Plus, what some of the advantages are to choosing air freight. There are a couple different kinds of air freight carriers. Knowing what each of them does will help when it comes time to select one for shipping service. There are the companies that transport people from one place to another. Examples would be Delta, American Airlines, or Southwest.

Even though they are designed and intended to move people, they will offer space for sale in the luggage compartment. There tend to be weight and space limits for cargo traveling this way. However, this option is a convenient one thanks to the many destinations and volume of flights. These planes carry all kinds of cargo but do not transport people. Because of this, there are fewer restrictions when it comes to weight and size of the shipments. Often one of the challenges of air cargo is getting the shipment to and from the airport.

This is where integrated carriers come in handy. These carriers will transport the shipment from the door of the pickup location to the door of the drop off location. These types of carriers rely on a hub system that allows them to efficiently transport shipments. These carriers have aircraft for both passengers and cargo.

Some familiar combination carriers are airlines Emirates and Lufthansa. With air freight, same day delivery is possible anywhere in the United States. There is the ability to be time specific with air freight shipments. Just designate the pickup and delivery times. This is an advantage over ground freight that has pick-up and delivery windows. There is an increased level of security with air freight. When a shipment is transported via ground on a truck, that truck makes multiple stops. During any one of those stops, the shipments on board become vulnerable.

Airports inherently have a higher level of security than any trucking facility. This allows them to compete on a larger scale with expeditious shipping. Because of the high level of security and the direct point A to point B nature of the transport, it is much easier to track air cargo.

The shipment need will dictate which carrier is ideal for that particular item. We are going to go over some examples.

Normally lithium batteries are not permitted on passenger planes. But this is not the case on cargo planes. This makes them ideal for shipments of these batteries. This would be items like large equipment.

types of air cargo pdf

Passenger planes are perfect for shipping parcels. Many parcel carriers these days regularly book space on commercial planes for parcel shipments.Air cargo is any property carried or to be carried in an aircraft.

Air cargo comprises air freight, air express and airmail. Newspaper clippings quoted the Wright brothers as stating he covered the distance in 66 minutes, but the flight was officially recorded at 57 minutes, a world speed record at the time. The world's first official airmail flight by airplane took place on 18 Februaryat a large exhibition in the United Provinces of Agra and OudhBritish India.

The organizer of the aviation display, Sir Walter Windhamwas able to secure permission from the postmaster general in India to operate an airmail service in order to generate publicity for the exhibition and to raise money for charity. The world's first scheduled airmail post service took place in the United Kingdom between the London suburb of Hendonand the Postmaster General 's office in Windsor, Berkshireon September 9, It was part of the celebrations for King George V 's coronation and at the suggestion of Sir Walter Windhamwho based his proposal on the successful experiment he had overseen in India.

The service ran for just under a month, transporting 35 bags of mail in 16 flights. In the early 20s, air cargo developed rapidly because numerous entrepreneurs realized aircraft could move high value and low volume consignments much faster than the railroads and shipping companies.

The first scheduled flight from London to Paris in had only one passenger but carried leather for a shoe manufacturer and grouse for a restaurant. Although there were a few attempts to organize air freight airlines from the s on, the first commercial airlines that were all-cargo did not emerge until after World War II. In Berlin was jointly controlled by the Western Allies and Russiansalthough the Russians held the area surrounding the city and thus land access.

As this access was closed, in the so-called Berlin blockadean airlift remained the only option to get increasingly urgent deliveries of food, coal, and other supplies to West Berlin.

Over days to 12 May a total of 2. Although freight traffic developed modestly, reaching onlytonnes worldwide by the mids, the world economy was hitting its post-war stride. Germany and Japan were emerging from their period of purgatory and were poised to take the world of business by storm, the United States was approaching the height of its economic dominance, and Western Europe had recovered from the war. InBoeing launched the four enginethe first wide-body aircraft.

The was the first aircraft capable of transporting full pallets in the cargo hold, revolutionizing the air cargo industry. Despite widespread hopes for a vibrant industry, for decades the air freight sector did not grow as expected and remained a very small part of total air traffic.

For much of the first five post-war decades most carriers saw it as a secondary activity, although there had always been specialized cargo airlines.Cargo or freight is goods or produce transported, generally for commercial gain, by ship or aircraft, although the term is now extended to intermodal train, van or truck. In modern times, containers are used in most long-haul cargo transport. Break bulk cargo is typically material stacked on pallets and lifted into and out of the hold of a vessel by cranes on the dock or aboard the ship itself.

The volume of break bulk cargo has declined dramatically worldwide as containerization has grown. One way to secure break bulk and freight in intermodal containers is by using Dunnage Bags. Bulk cargo, such as salt, oil, tallow, and scrap metal, is usually defined as commodities that are neither on pallets nor in containers.

Bulk cargoes are not handled as individual pieces, the way heavy-lift and project cargoes are. Alumina, grain, gypsum, logs, and wood chips, for instance, are bulk cargoes. Neo-bulk cargo comprises individual units that are counted as they are loaded and unloaded, in contrast to bulk cargo that is not counted, but that are not containerized.

Containers are the largest and fastest growing cargo category at most ports worldwide.

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Containerized cargo includes everything from auto parts, machinery and manufacturing components to shoes and toys to frozen meat and seafood. Project cargo and the heavy lift cargo include items like manufacturing equipment, air conditioners, factory components, generators, wind turbines, military equipment, and almost any other oversized or overweight cargo which is too big or too heavy to fit into a container.

Air cargo, commonly known as air freight, is collected by firms from shippers and delivered to customers. Aircraft were first used for carrying mail as cargo in Eventually manufacturers started designing aircraft for other types of freight as well.

Trains are capable of transporting large numbers of containers that come from shipping ports. Trains are also used for the transportation of steel, wood and coal.

They are used because they can carry a large amount and generally have a direct route to the destination. Under the right circumstances, freight transport by rail is more economic and energy efficient than by road, especially when carried in bulk or over long distances.

The main disadvantage of rail freight is its lack of flexibility. For this reason, rail has lost much of the freight business to road transport.

Rail freight is often subject to transshipment costs, since it must be transferred from one mode of transportation to another. Practices such as containerization aim at minimizing these costs. Delivering everything from letters to houses to cargo containers, these firms offer fast, sometimes same-day, delivery. A good example of road cargo is food, as supermarkets require deliveries every day to keep their shelves stocked with goods. Retailers of all kinds rely upon delivery trucks, be they full size semi trucks or smaller delivery vans.Not a MyNAP member yet?

Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book.

Unlike passenger transport, whose customers typically travel round trip on aircraft, air cargo packages and parcels are one-way shipments. In addition to using aircraft for their operations, the industry also relies heavily on a wide range of truck types. In general, it is profit focused and will only operate aircraft at an airport when it is deemed profitable.

It is also impor- tant to point out that the air cargo industry, particularly on the aviation side of the business, is heavily regulated by the federal government. These factors are directly linked to sound airport planning practices and management.

These guidelines are to assist the airport community in using a consis- tent and thorough study approach in air cargo facility solutions. This section describes the major steps in this process. It is important to note that air cargo facility planning may be included as an element of an airport master plan, which takes into consideration planning for a wide variety of airport facilities, such as passenger terminals, automobile parking, roadway access, runway and taxiway lengths and layout, and general aviation facilities.

The airport sponsor may also choose to plan specifically for air cargo facilities in a separate airport master plan focusing solely on the air cargo areas and activities at the airport. This plan may fall under the categories of a stand-alone cargo master plan, an air cargo business development strategy, or an air cargo development plan. The planning and development of air cargo facilities follow the airport master planning pro- cess typically used to plan and design an entire airport or specific airport projects.

A general outline of the cargo facility planning process is provided in Table It is important to consider all of these steps, but the process should be tailored to the needs of the individual airport. Airports often have better data on passenger terminals since they have command and control of the terminal throughput information.

Air- ports collect information on passenger movements through the curbside, ticketing, security, and gate hold rooms. Define, as clearly and specifically as possible, the air cargo planning and design objectives, as they can influence the project. Have a thorough understanding of the physical, environmental, business, and operating environment to ensure appropriate consideration during the planning and design processes.

Forecasted activity at the air cargo facility, including the fleet serving the airport and the peak demand on the apron throughout the day, is necessary to determine air cargo facility area requirements. Quantify, to the degree possible, what the planned air cargo facility must be able to accommodate.

Air cargo facility requirements: The demand forecasts and the inventory information are used to derive air cargo facility requirements for the anticipated aircraft fleet and the ground support equipment expected to use the air cargo facility.

Define the physical, operational, and dimensional parameters that must guide the air cargo facility planning and design process and be met during it. Alternatives development: Once the air cargo facility requirements have been determined, alternatives to meet these requirements are defined, considering the operation of the air cargo facility, impacts to proximate facilities, and other planning criteria or guidelines.

Define air cargo facility alternatives that are anticipated to satisfy the project requirements, recognizing that these alternatives will be further evaluated in a later step. Evaluation of alternatives: If more than a single alternative is considered, all alternatives should be evaluated in this step to reduce the number of alternatives to a preferred one.

This evaluation is usually completed by using a set of criteria agreed on by stakeholders. Review the candidate air cargo facility alternatives and determine which best meet the goals of the project sponsor and its stakeholders, balanced against the costs, impacts, potential environmental consequences, and other relevant criteria.

Refinement of preferred alternative: In this step, the preferred project alternative is refined to resolve shortcomings identified in the evaluation process or from additional input from stakeholders. The refinement can include value engineering to maximize project cost- effectiveness. Define the preferred project alternative at an appropriate level of detail for implementation.

Implementation planning: This step in the planning and design process enhances the understanding and definition of the conceptual project by providing a summary description and schedule of the recommended improvements, estimated associated costs, potential environmental impacts, and National Environmental Policy Act NEPA documentation.

Examine the project in light of the steps that would typically be necessary prior to project construction to minimize the potential for unexpected influences or constraints to affect eventual project implementation. Environmental processing: If a federal action is associated with the air cargo facility project [approval of an airport layout plan ALPacceptance of federal grant funding, etc.

Develop an understanding of and document the potential environmental impacts, particularly in those cases where such impacts could influence the project. Table Cargo facility planning process.

Types of Cargo

Air Cargo Planning Approach and Process 17 well as baggage claim information. The challenge for the airport planner then is the lack of data on air cargo movement and throughput within air cargo buildings and support infrastructure.Air cargo is any property carried or to be carried in an aircraft. Air cargo comprises air freight, air express and airmail. Newspaper clippings quoted the Wright brothers as stating he covered the distance in 66 minutes, but the flight was officially recorded at 57 minutes, a world speed record at the time.

The world's first official airmail flight by airplane took place on 18 Februaryat a large exhibition in the United Provinces of Agra and OudhBritish India.

The organizer of the aviation display, Sir Walter Windhamwas able to secure permission from the postmaster general in India to operate an airmail service in order to generate publicity for the exhibition and to raise money for charity.

The world's first scheduled airmail post service took place in the United Kingdom between the London suburb of Hendonand the Postmaster General 's office in Windsor, Berkshireon September 9, It was part of the celebrations for King George V 's coronation and at the suggestion of Sir Walter Windhamwho based his proposal on the successful experiment he had overseen in India.

The service ran for just under a month, transporting 35 bags of mail in 16 flights. In the early 20s, air cargo developed rapidly because numerous entrepreneurs realized aircraft could move high value and low volume consignments much faster than the railroads and shipping companies.

The first scheduled flight from London to Paris in had only one passenger but carried leather for a shoe manufacturer and grouse for a restaurant. Although there were a few attempts to organize air freight airlines from the s on, the first commercial airlines that were all-cargo did not emerge until after World War II.

In Berlin was jointly controlled by the Western Allies and Russiansalthough the Russians held the area surrounding the city and thus land access. As this access was closed, in the so-called Berlin blockadean airlift remained the only option to get increasingly urgent deliveries of food, coal, and other supplies to West Berlin.

Over days to 12 May a total of 2. Although freight traffic developed modestly, reaching onlytonnes worldwide by the mids, the world economy was hitting its post-war stride. Germany and Japan were emerging from their period of purgatory and were poised to take the world of business by storm, the United States was approaching the height of its economic dominance, and Western Europe had recovered from the war.

InBoeing launched the four enginethe first wide-body aircraft. The was the first aircraft capable of transporting full pallets in the cargo hold, revolutionizing the air cargo industry. Despite widespread hopes for a vibrant industry, for decades the air freight sector did not grow as expected and remained a very small part of total air traffic. For much of the first five post-war decades most carriers saw it as a secondary activity, although there had always been specialized cargo airlines.Whether you ship via air, water or land, there is always a certain amount of risk associated with any kind of shipping method.

The chances of lost or damaged goods along the way cannot be ruled out entirely, as there are a number of unpredictable, external factors that may occur. Cargo insurance covers everything from minor damages to theft and loss, making it an essential option. This post discusses why cargo insurance is necessary and the different types of policies that you can choose from.

As the name suggests, this type of insurance policy is made for consignments that are transported on land. Anything that is moved by trucks, vans, utility vehicles or even rail, is covered.

types of air cargo pdf

Those who opt for this type, will protect their goods from theft, damages dues to collision or accidents and other similar factors. Any package transported by ship or air can be insured by marine cargo insurance. Damages due to weather conditions, loading and unloading, piracies and other relevant issues, are covered by this policy.

Marine cargo policies primarily cover international shipping. Insurance coverage against various different consignments that are chosen by the insurance holders, activate the open cover cargo policies.

These policies are divided into two categories: renewable and permanent policies. The former must be renewed after the policy expiration for a particular value.

However, the latter has a specific time period during which countless shipments can be covered. In this case, the shipping company usually approaches an insurance broker or agency for a particular consignment. When the coverage is made for particular cargo, it falls under the category of specific cargo benefits. These policies only cover water transported shipments, which are also known as voyage policies.

For certain consignments, the receiver is responsible for the safety of the cargo and has to insure it against loss and damage. The problem arises when the receiver does not insure it and refuses to accept the package when it gets damaged during transit to avoid liability. Contingency cargo policies protect the sellers or senders in such situations.

The benefits are dependent on the type of coverage that you have chosen. There are three broad types of cargo insurance that include:. The risks that are covered under the cargo insurance include packaging damage, custom rejection, infestation, non-delivery, fire damage, employee dishonesty, abandonment, weather damage and many more.

Opting for cargo insurance ensures that you are able recover the financial loss at least partly, in case the consignment is damaged in any way.

Opting for cargo insurance is very important when transporting goods. It assures that your items are transported safely, with coverage to assist you in the case of unpredictable situation.

Any misfortune that occurs during shipment can be avoided by choosing a reputable and experienced service provider. Call us for appointment at Land cargo insurance As the name suggests, this type of insurance policy is made for consignments that are transported on land. Marine cargo insurance Any package transported by ship or air can be insured by marine cargo insurance.

There are three specific policies under the category of marine cargo insurances. They include: Open cover cargo policies Insurance coverage against various different consignments that are chosen by the insurance holders, activate the open cover cargo policies.Cargo or freight is goods or products transported, generally for commercial gain, by ship or aircraft, although the term is now extended to intermodal train, van or truck.

Sea transportation is not like trains, cars which are limited by rails and roads, it has an extensive natural waterway to carry the goods which makes its ability to a high level. Vessel transport capacity is far greater than the rail transport and cars.

For example, a 10 thousand tons ship is generally equivalent to the load capacity of to wagons. Although sea transport has above advantages, but there are also some inadequacies. For example, sea transportation delayed by climate and natural conditions, shipping date is not so accurate as trains and is more risky. In addition, sea transport speed is not as fast as trucks or trains.

Types of Cargo

Learn more about China ocean freight here. Air cargo, commonly known as air freight, is a modern mode transportation, compare with sea transport, rail transport, it has the advantages of fast transport, high-quality, and not limited on ground conditions.

Of course it cost more. It is the most suitable way for delivering urgently needed supplies of fresh goods, precision instruments, valuable goods, etc. In just about all businesses, time is money. So, does the higher cost of shipping by air get diffused by the increase in speed? Also keep in mind that as we move forward, technology is consistently making shipping by ocean faster. This is happening through better vessels, faster management resources and more accurate communication.

If interested in China air freight, you can find more here. Trains are capable of transporting large numbers of containers that come from shipping ports. Trains are also used for the transportation of steel, wood and coal. They are used because they can carry a large amount and generally have a direct route to the destination. Under the right circumstances, goods transport by rail is more economic and energy efficient than by road, especially when carried in bulk or over long distances.

Let us know your thoughts, please. Check your potential suppliers in China — get the verification report in 24 hours. Protect your business, avoid scams and frauds. I'm in. My machine arrived in good order and I am happy with CFC's shipping arrangements. I received quotes from other forwarding companies but they kept changing the amounts. Your quote was exact and there were no hidden charges. I would be happy to recommend CFC to other importers of goods from China.

Cargo Types by Sea, Air, and Rail. Carrying routing capacity.

types of air cargo pdf

Large carrying volume.


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